ALIEN ALERT IN SEATTLE PDF

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Gina D. B. Clemen. | Alien Alert in Seattle. JDIO CD This story takes place in Seattle, Washington, on the Pacific Coast of the. United States. Washington was. This story takes place in Seattle, Washington, on the Pacific Coast of the. United States. Washington was named after America's first president. Page 9 – activity 1. A alien B universe C planet D UFO. Page 9 – activity 2. 1 F 2 T 3 T 4 F 5 F 6 T. Page 16 – activity 1. 1 C 2 B 3 C 4 B 5 C 6 B. Page 17 – activity .


Alien Alert In Seattle Pdf

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Moreover, many of the global biodiversity hotspots that are highly vulnerable to invasion are found in countries that our results suggest have little capacity to respond to IAS in particular central America, Africa, central Asia and Indochina. Low-HDI countries will particularly require species prioritization and response schemes for IAS introduced via passenger air travel, whose establishment is aided by, and may threaten, agricultural expansion.

Early-warning and eradication schemes should be tailored to the factors locally most responsible for introduction and establishment. International sharing of information on IAS and management expertize could greatly help set management priorities in regions that have little capacity to tackle IAS.

Figure 1: Global invasion threat for the twenty-first century. Airport and seaport capacity, as well as animal, plant and total imports between and , is combined into global introduction risk. Projected biome shifts and increase in agricultural intensity and fire frequency between and emissions scenario A2 are combined into global establishment threat.

Introduction and establishment axes are combined into overall invasion threat Supplementary Fig. All maps except f and h are displayed using the colour scheme from a, which runs from very high VH; red to very low VL; blue. Maps b and c, composite introduction and establishment threats, were calculated using the highest value of the constituent factors within each grid cell. Maps f and h combine the two named threat variables using the colour scheme defined in each panel.

In d, grid cells containing ports are enlarged for visibility. Full size image The distribution and level of threat did not change substantially when alternative predictions of environmental change or establishment factors were applied, but using all passenger air travel rather than only inter-continental journeys changed the spatial extent of some high-threat areas Supplementary Fig.

High levels of general trade and pet and plant imports coincide in Europe, China and the eastern United States Fig. Plant and pet imports are particularly common in North America and western Europe, whereas plant imports are the dominant vector in eastern Europe and central Asia, and animal imports are the dominant vector in the Middle East and east Asia Fig. In high-HDI regions, high IAS threat occurs primarily where introduction vectors coincide with projected climate-driven biome shifts throughout the twenty-first century Supplementary Fig.

Climate change, as expressed through biome shifts Fig. Introduction pressure from passenger air travel is now as high in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian peninsula, and southeast and south Asia as it is in Europe or North America light blue or white pockets, Fig. The highest IAS threats in low-HDI regions, and in biodiversity hotspots, occur in regions where globally high levels of passenger air travel overlap with agricultural conversion Fig. National capacities to respond to the IAS threat Reactive national policies aimed at managing IAS that are already established and problematic in a given country tend to be more common than proactive policies to detect or counteract the emergence of potential IAS Fig.

Proactive capacities are more advanced in high-HDI countries than low-HDI countries, but surprisingly few high-HDI countries have strong proactive policies, and even fewer countries have both strong reactive and proactive capacities. Areas of Africa, south and central Asia, Indochina, the Balkans, and South and Central America show the greatest shortfall between both types of response capacities and the threat of emerging invasions Fig.

Both knowledge of the current extent of the IAS problem and control efforts for existing IAS reactive capacities are relatively poor in much of Africa, and in parts of the Middle East and Central Asia.

The proactive capacities of border controls the most common proactive policy , early-warning systems, research and collaboration are most limited in Africa Fig. Figure 2: National capacities to respond to the threat of emerging species invasions.

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Thus negative values red indicate the greatest shortfall. Full size image Discussion The relative threats from IAS that countries around the world will face in the future differ markedly from current threat levels. IAS are therefore a currently underappreciated and potentially severe element of environmental change in economically developing regions. In such regions, economies and food production systems are often fragile and human populations are particularly vulnerable to food shortages. The major contribution of passenger air travel to introductions into low-HDI regions is particularly concerning because air travel is a major vector of pests and pathogens that can often only survive short journeys 19 and pose a particular risk to agriculture.

Low-HDI regions will thus be faced with mitigating not just the economic, human health and ecological impacts posed directly by environmental changes, but also the effects of increased invasion facilitated by those changes. It should be noted that twenty-first century threat levels are based on trade and transport levels between and , to account for time lags between introduction and invasion.

As globalization continues apace, introduction pressures on many developing economies may increase even further 6 , worsening the IAS threat. More detailed local analyses would refine understanding of introduction and establishment factors, and improve threat assessments and management tools. However, the global analysis we present here highlights particular areas of vulnerability that should be subsequently addressed by detailed analyses, for example, the prominent role of passenger air travel in low-HDI countries.

High-HDI regions will likely receive proportionally fewer novel introductions than low-HDI regions because many more alien species have already been introduced.

Nevertheless, the number of introductions to high-HDI regions has not slowed 9. Increasing globalization means that new trading relationships are continually forming among countries adding sources of novel IAS , and environmental change continually increases the ease of establishment We found that prevention of introduction and establishment proactive capacity lags far behind progress towards the reactive CBD goals.

The most advanced proactive element is the existence of border controls.

The prevalence of border controls is encouraging, as the predominance of passenger air travel as an introduction factor in low-HDI countries suggests that screening these routes is an important component of IAS management. However, in most countries border controls target five species or fewer Supplementary Fig.

Furthermore, although border controls are desirable as preventing introduction is more effective than eradication following introduction 19 , our results are based on trade and transportation values from —, which have likely already introduced novel IAS are poised to become problematic.

Post-introduction eradication and control of IAS will therefore be important Eradication therefore requires proactive capacities that support monitoring for early detection of nascent invasions, as well as rapid response to newly discovered populations County jail refuses to honor ICE detainer of man who sexually assaulted dog In February , an illegally present Mexican citizen was encountered by ICE officials at a local Oregon county jail.

ICE lodged an immigration detainer on the man the same day for violating immigration laws.

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In April , the man was convicted of multiple charges involving animal abuse. The county jail did not honor the immigration detainer and released him without notice to immigration officials. ICE apprehended the man at his residence and served him a notice to appear. He is currently being held at the Northwest Detention Center in Tacoma pending immigration proceedings. A detainer is a request to local law enforcement agencies that ICE be notified as early as practicable — ideally at least 48 hours — before a removable alien is released from criminal custody and then briefly maintain custody of the alien for up to 48 hours to allow ICE to assume custody for removal purposes.

In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion.

Introduction Invasive alien species IAS are a primary threat to global biodiversity, economies and human health 1. The threat of invasion at any given location has been shown to increase with the rate at which IAS propagules are introduced 2 and the degree of disturbances that promote IAS establishment 3.

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Currently, the highest numbers of IAS in the world, the strongest IAS management efforts and the greatest knowledge about the extent of invasions are found in economically developed countries, that is, those with a high Human Development Index HDI 4 , 5.

However, the geographical patterns of future invasions is likely to be substantially different from that of today 6. The intensities and global patterns of introduction and disturbance are changing more rapidly today than at any time during human history 1 , 6 , 7. Despite these changing threats, national-level legislation to prevent or control IAS has not increased 8 and, as of , only half of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity CBD had enacted national legislation relevant to IAS 4.

The regions that will be most exposed to emerging invasions throughout the twenty-first century, and the disparity between IAS threats and capacities to respond to those threats, are therefore poorly quantified. We provide the first global, spatial forecast of emerging invasions throughout the twenty-first century by analysing spatial data for the above IAS introduction and establishment factors.

International trade is a primary source of introduction of IAS as stowaways or contaminants in goods and packing materials 2 , 9 , The pet and plant trades are major sources of animal and plant introductions, due to the frequent escape or release of imported species into the wild 11 , and a primary mechanism for the introduction of insect pests and pathogen contaminants Transportation as stowaways in passenger planes is a major and expanding source of IAS introductions 9 , 13 , 14 and marine shipping ports serve as epicentres of invasion 13 , Disturbance promotes the establishment of IAS 3.

On a global scale, the most relevant disturbance factors are expansion of agriculture 16 , changes in the composition of native communities as a result of climate change biome shifts 17 and increasing wildfire 18 , To have a strong proactive capacity, countries must attempt to prevent the introduction of IAS that are new to that country and control species that are already established and are beginning to emerge as problematic IAS.

Thus, demonstrating proactive capacity requires comprehensive border-control policies 22 and programmes for research, monitoring and public engagement 11 , 23 , 24 we classified national response capacities according to the criteria in Supplementary Table 1.

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Our analyses of IAS threats suggest that in coming decades, biological invasions will remain high in wealthy and already highly invaded countries. These countries must prepare for a new suite of IAS as climate change disturbs resident ecosystems and introductions of species continue via the pet and plant trade. Less precedented is that IAS will increasingly threaten human livelihoods in low-HDI countries and in the last remaining biodiversity strongholds, where invasions are least well recognized and studied 4 , 5.

Our analysis suggests that current policies in most countries are under-equipped to address emerging threats from IAS, particularly throughout Africa and the eastern hemisphere. Moreover, many of the global biodiversity hotspots that are highly vulnerable to invasion are found in countries that our results suggest have little capacity to respond to IAS in particular central America, Africa, central Asia and Indochina.

Low-HDI countries will particularly require species prioritization and response schemes for IAS introduced via passenger air travel, whose establishment is aided by, and may threaten, agricultural expansion. Early-warning and eradication schemes should be tailored to the factors locally most responsible for introduction and establishment.

International sharing of information on IAS and management expertize could greatly help set management priorities in regions that have little capacity to tackle IAS. Figure 1: Global invasion threat for the twenty-first century.

Airport and seaport capacity, as well as animal, plant and total imports between and , is combined into global introduction risk. Projected biome shifts and increase in agricultural intensity and fire frequency between and emissions scenario A2 are combined into global establishment threat.

Introduction and establishment axes are combined into overall invasion threat Supplementary Fig. All maps except f and h are displayed using the colour scheme from a, which runs from very high VH; red to very low VL; blue. Maps b and c, composite introduction and establishment threats, were calculated using the highest value of the constituent factors within each grid cell.

Maps f and h combine the two named threat variables using the colour scheme defined in each panel.

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In d, grid cells containing ports are enlarged for visibility. Full size image The distribution and level of threat did not change substantially when alternative predictions of environmental change or establishment factors were applied, but using all passenger air travel rather than only inter-continental journeys changed the spatial extent of some high-threat areas Supplementary Fig.

High levels of general trade and pet and plant imports coincide in Europe, China and the eastern United States Fig. Plant and pet imports are particularly common in North America and western Europe, whereas plant imports are the dominant vector in eastern Europe and central Asia, and animal imports are the dominant vector in the Middle East and east Asia Fig.

In high-HDI regions, high IAS threat occurs primarily where introduction vectors coincide with projected climate-driven biome shifts throughout the twenty-first century Supplementary Fig.

Climate change, as expressed through biome shifts Fig. Introduction pressure from passenger air travel is now as high in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian peninsula, and southeast and south Asia as it is in Europe or North America light blue or white pockets, Fig. The highest IAS threats in low-HDI regions, and in biodiversity hotspots, occur in regions where globally high levels of passenger air travel overlap with agricultural conversion Fig.

National capacities to respond to the IAS threat Reactive national policies aimed at managing IAS that are already established and problematic in a given country tend to be more common than proactive policies to detect or counteract the emergence of potential IAS Fig. Proactive capacities are more advanced in high-HDI countries than low-HDI countries, but surprisingly few high-HDI countries have strong proactive policies, and even fewer countries have both strong reactive and proactive capacities.

Areas of Africa, south and central Asia, Indochina, the Balkans, and South and Central America show the greatest shortfall between both types of response capacities and the threat of emerging invasions Fig. Both knowledge of the current extent of the IAS problem and control efforts for existing IAS reactive capacities are relatively poor in much of Africa, and in parts of the Middle East and Central Asia.

The proactive capacities of border controls the most common proactive policy , early-warning systems, research and collaboration are most limited in Africa Fig. Figure 2: National capacities to respond to the threat of emerging species invasions.County jail refuses to honor ICE detainer of man who sexually assaulted dog In February , an illegally present Mexican citizen was encountered by ICE officials at a local Oregon county jail.

Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions.

Within a decade, nearby rivers and fisheries have been devastated with clogged fish screens, eroded banks and levees, and marred commercial-fishing nets. ICE lodges detainers on individuals who have been arrested on local criminal charges and are suspected of being deportable, so that ICE can take custody of that person when he or she is released from local authorities.

To have a strong proactive capacity, countries must attempt to prevent the introduction of IAS that are new to that country and control species that are already established and are beginning to emerge as problematic IAS.

Whilst quantifying introduction pathways and identifying sites that face a high threat of invasion Fig. These approaches might be particularly useful for low-HDI countries where the main introduction vector, passenger air travel, is already well mapped 7.

Transportation as stowaways in passenger planes is a major and expanding source of IAS introductions 9 , 13 , 14 and marine shipping ports serve as epicentres of invasion 13 ,

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