Mitochondria and chloroplasts. ® „ These organelles are found in the cytoplasm. ® „ Therefore, extranuclear inheritance is also termed cytoplasmic inheritance. The past couple of lectures, we've been exploring exceptions to Mendel's principles of transmission inheritance. Scientists have observed inheritance patterns. Extranuclear Inheritance. Maternal Effects. • Phenotype of Offspring is determined (at least in part) by mother's nuclear genotype. • Examples.

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Extranuclear Inheritance. • Organelle heredity. – Organelles that contain chromosomes. • Chloroplasts and mitochondria. • Infectious heredity. – Involves a . Extranuclear inheritance or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Cytoplasmic inheritance??? Extranuclear inheritance or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus.

Recombination between chloroplast DNAs does not occur in sexual crosses of Oenothera. Interspecific chloroplast recombination in a Nicotiana somatic hybrid. Evolutionary relationships among the male and female mitochondrial DNA lineages in the Mytilus edulis species complex. Mol Biol Evol. Male and female mitochondrial DNA lineages in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis species group.

Spermiogenesis in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii II. Description of stages.

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J Biophys Biochem Cytol. Selective silencing of eukaryotic DNA. Fate of sperm tail components after incorporation into the hamster egg.

Gamete Res. Elimination of paternal mitochondrial DNA in intraspecific crosses during early mouse embryogenesis. The fate of sperm middle-piece mitochondria in the rat egg. J Exp Zool. Curr Genet. Nuclear and extranuclear inheritance of oligomycin resistance in Aspergillus nidulans.

Maternal inheritance of extranuclear mitochondrial markers in Aspergillus nidulans. Genet Res.

Elimination of plastids during spermatogenesis and fertilization in the plant kingdom. Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla.

Extranuclear Inheritance: Genetics and Biogenesis of Mitochondria

Mitochondria are organelles which function to transform energy as a result of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts are organelles which function to produce sugars via photosynthesis in plants and algae.

The genes located in mitochondria and chloroplasts are very important for proper cellular function, yet the genomes replicate independently of the DNA located in the nucleus, which is typically arranged in chromosomes that only replicate one time preceding cellular division. The extranuclear genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts however replicate independently of cell division.

They replicate in response to a cell's increasing energy needs which adjust during that cell's lifespan. Since they replicate independently, genomic recombination of these genomes is rarely found in offspring, contrary to nuclear genomes in which recombination is common.

Mitochondrial diseases are inherited from the mother, not from the father: mitochondria with their mitochondrial DNA from the mother's egg cell are incorporated into the zygote and passed to daughter cells, whereas those from the sperm are not.

Parasites[ edit ] Extranuclear transmission of viral genomes and symbiotic bacteria is also possible.

Uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes: mechanisms and evolution.

An example of viral genome transmission is perinatal transmission. In myotonic dystrophy the disease will be more severe, even often congenital, if the mother is the affected parent who transmitted the disease.

In Huntington disease the age of onset may be earlier and the severity more pronounced if the father transmitted the disease. In those two examples it has not been demonstrated beyond doubt that the phenomenon is due to parental imprinting, triplet amplification or a mitochondrial mutation.

A gene may have a normal structure but other genes in the metabolic chain or the absence of co-factor s may be responsible for the inhibition of a protein activity and the production of a genetic disease. For some individuals rickets is due to a vitamin D deficiency that will be corrected by the addition of a vitamin supplement in the diet.

For others the disease due to the absence of the active form of Vitamin D, an autosomal recessive disease, or several other mutations regulating the vitamin D metabolism. Mutations of cancer suppressors, protein regulators enzymes or DNA repair genes have been identified.

Extra Nuclear Inheritance

For example those mutations can induce metabolic diseases like mucopolysaccharidoses, ovary and colon cancers and DNA repair defects like Ataxia telangiectasia. If a deletion occurs in gene WT1 located on chromosome 11 in region 11p13, it will lead to a Wilms tumor and a nephropathy.

Syndrome WAGR W:: Wilms; A: aniridia, G: genito-urinary malformations, R: mental retardation would result from the deletion of this and other contiguous genes located in region 11ppMutations of cancer suppressors, protein regulators enzymes or DNA repair genes have been identified. Genetics — Mol Biol — They are self-reproducing and look like the cytoplasmic inclusions.

Incomplete maternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila. J Ultrastruct Res.

Mol Cell Biol — Plant Cell S—

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